Are White Lies Harmless?

17 12 2016

by Nick Galifianakis

‘If you were hiding Jews during the second World War, and the Gestapo came to ask whether you were sheltering them, is it morally wrong to tell the Gestapo that you are not, when indeed you are?’ is a question that is often posed to discern whether lies are ever excusable. Perhaps the white lie is a more whimsical example, where a woman from whom you desire affection asks, ‘How do I look?’ in the obvious case that she is having a bad appearance day. Is it ok to lie to make her feel better or is it morally correct to always tell the truth even in ‘frivolous’ situations? These are actually not easy questions, but your answer to them will reflect your ascription to a certain type of morality, lying, and most importantly truth.

Truth. In the recent American news, there has been much talk about the role and influence of fake-news and social media in the 2016 presidential election. Though there are many credible sources that say it wasn’t the determining factor in the election. There are numerous articles claiming the serious negative impact fake-news has whether it is determinative or not (NY Times, The Guardian). Perhaps, the post-modern world has really reached its apex and embraced the notion of ‘post-truth’ a word selected by the Oxford Dictionary as the International Word of the Year for 2016. Post-truth is defined as “relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief.” But fake-news is not merely about philosophy, truth, or post-truth, it is additionally about our abandonment of morality in the economic sector. NPR’s Planet Money traces down one of the owners of the fake news websites in a recent podcast episode titled, “Finding the Fake-News King“. In the fascinating episode, Jestin, one of the owners of these fake news sites, reported to have made in the range of $10,000 to $30,000 a month. There is clear financial incentive here and in a world where profit trumps morality, it’s no surprise that fake-news is such a rampant phenomenon.

Money. So then is this fake-news phenomenon primarily a financial incentive issue? It’s hard to tell but one partial solution is to financially support credible news sources so that they can be empowered to report what is important rather than what sells. But it’s not merely an issue of money, there is indeed culpability in our post-truth mentality. We have taken truth too lightly in our generation. The 9th commandment of the decalogue seems like a peccadillo compared to its sixth and seventh counterpart (i.e. Don’t kill, Don’t commit adultery). Perhaps, we take it lightly because telling a lie doesn’t seem to harm anyone or if it does, not too much harm. Trump sure seems to believe it. We are all protégés of William James, whether consciously or not, and subscribers to the dominant American philosophy: pragmatism.

Pragmatism. Then, do we deny the enticing motivations of pragmatism and go back to modernist affirmations of right and wrong, that there is truth and there is untruth. That there is no such thing as post-truth. Perhaps. It wouldn’t hurt (haha). But to only think in the spectrum of right and wrong won’t help us properly navigate the moral ambiguities of white lies, or whether it is ok to lie to protect those in imminent danger, and it certainly will not help us see the foundational meaning of truth. What can help us see thus, is a biblical lens of shalom.

Shalom. Truth is not just right and a lie is not just wrong, as the world was created on truth as its foundation. Indulge me for a bit. A human is human. Air is air. Water is water. To mistaken heat and cold will lead to chaos. Honest predication, or truth, allows order, that is, shalom. It’s spacial. Then, there are promises. A word is my bond. Promises are truth connections of the past through the present into the future. We make promises in the present to guarantee a particular truth reality. Something of a temporal thing. And trust. Trust cannot exist with out the truth of promises. And without trust, there cannot be flourishing of relationships of any kind. Shalom, as Nicholas Wolterstorff defines it, “is the human being dwelling at peace in all his or her relationships: with God, with self, with fellows, with nature.” It is an affirmation of predication and predictability. Truth guarantees this flourishing. So a lie can be filtered through the lens of shalom. Though it’s not formulaic, it adds nuance. Should you lie to hide people in imminent danger? Yes! Will you be morally culpable for doing so? I’d like to say no.

Fake-news. So then, are we to blame the news for the result of the presidential election? No, but there is a profound shaking of foundations when we continue on with such false reporting for the sake of profit. It is more than getting things wrong, it’s increasing chaos and diminishing flourishing on a cosmic scale. It is no wonder Jesus included truth along with the way and life to predicate who He is.


What is Freedom?

7 10 2008

How do you define “freedom”? Here’s Wolterstorff’s take on why the West has such a hard time understanding the concept of grace.

“Maybe the difficulty of us to grasp grace is heightened by the fact that our society and culture today upholds the freedom to choose as supreme. Quite possibly this is an inhibition to the entryway to an exclusive religion but furthermore and inhibition to live a life where freedom to choose seems diminished.”

Wolterstorff, Nicholas Until Justice and Peace Embrace, p 40.

For those who chase Happiness

12 09 2008

Nicholas Wolterstorff is a great commentator on sociology, economics, anthropology, and even religion. There are so many people in America, or just the world in general, who seek happiness as a final goal. If not a final goal, it is then at least used as a measure for the value, or even validity, of one’s life. This can be a tiresome way of life and ultimately unattainable. Wolterstorff comments (some emphasis added) in Until Justice & Peace Embrace:

“Down through the ages, man has found himself with desires that his physical situation left unsatisfied: he was hungry, but there was no food; he longed to live to a ripe old age, but found himself on his death bed at thirty; he loved his children and wanted them to live, but half died in childhood; he longed to fly like the birds, but found himself earth bound. Life was experienced as a vale of tears. In response to this experience, human beings learned to eliminate some of those desires that they had no hope of satisfying and to endure the unhappiness of life in the shadow of those they could not eliminate.

Our modern world-system holds out to all the allure – and, to many, the satisfaction – of a stunning alternative. To an astonishing degree we have learned how to alter our physical situation so that ancient desires are now satisfied. Where previously humanity, to gain freedom from unsatisfied desires, had to eliminate those desires, we now have gained freedom by satisfying them. A radical expansion of what may be called freedom by mastery is the great triumph of our modern world-system: that constitutes its most powerful allure and its deepest satisfaction. Of course, this system, in satisfying some desires, also suggests and stimulates others; some of these desires, in turn, are satisfied by yet further mastery of nature, but in the process yet others are aroused, and so forth. Happiness keeps receding.”